Introduction sources

The Annie E. Casey Foundation
The 2014 KIDS COUNT Data Book,” 2014.

The Atlantic
Why Is the American Dream Dead in the South?” Matthew O’Brien, January 26, 2014.
Are College Degrees Inherited?” Ronald Brownstein, April 11, 2014.
Hidden Racial Anxiety in an Age of Waning Racism,” Robert P. Jones, May 12, 2014.
Why Cities Work Even When Washington Doesn’t,” James Fallows, March 19, 2014.

Bill Bishop 
The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-minded America is Tearing Us Apart, 2009.

Brookings
14.2 Million Americans Work in Infrastructure. What Does That Mean?” Delaney Parrish, May 12, 2014.
The Growth and Spread of Concentrated Poverty,” Elizabeth Kneebone, July 31, 2014.
Saving Horatio Alger: Equality, Opportunity, and the American Dream,” Richard R. Reeves, August 20, 2014.
All Cities Are Not Created Unequal,” Alan Berube, February 20, 2014.

Center for American Progress
3 Reasons Subsidized Jobs Should Be Part of an Economic Mobility Agenda,” Rachel West, July 30, 2014.
Middle-Out for Millenials,” Sarah Ayres, October 21, 2013.

Center for Budget and Policy Priorities
Most States Funding Schools Less Than Before Recession,” Michael Leachman and Chris Mai, May 20, 2014.

Center for Economic and Policy Research
A College Degree is No Guarantee,” Janelle Jones and John Schmidt, May 2014.

CityLab
States with Better ‘Business Climates’ Also Have Higher Inequality,” Richard Florida, July 17, 2014.
Why It’s So Incredibly Difficult to Fight Urban Inequality,” Richard Florida and Stephanie Garlock, November 8, 2013.
Why It’s Harder to Move Up in America’s Segregated Cities,” Richard Florida, December 4, 2013.
High-School Dropouts and College Grads Are Moving to Very Different Places,” Richard Florida, June 16, 2014.

Council of Economic Advisers
Chairman Alan Krueger Discusses the Rise and Consequences of Inequality at the Center for American Progress,” January 12, 2012.

Department of Labor: Employment and Training Administration
Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act.”

Demos
The Top 10% of White Families Own Almost Everything,” Matt Bruenig, September 5, 2014.
Another Look at the Racial Wealth Gap,” Matt Bruenig, February 25, 2014.
In Reality, Middle-Class Blacks and Middle-Class Whites Have Vastly Different Fortunes,” Matt Bruenig, August 29, 2014.

Economic Policy Institute
The Class of 2014,” Heidi Shierholz, Alyssa Davis, and Will Kimball, May 1, 2014.
Raising America’s Pay,” Josh Bivens, Elise Gould, Lawrence Mishel, and Heidi Shierholz, June 4, 2014.

Equality of Opportunity Project
Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, Patrick Kline, Emmanuel Saez, and Nicholas Turner.

Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
The Economic Plight of Millenials,” Mark Carter, January-April 2014.

Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
Black-white differences in intergenerational economic mobility in the United States,” Bashkar Mazumder, 1Q/2014.

First Things
Alone in the New America,” David Lapp and Amber Lapp, February 2014.

Fierce Health Finance
Southern governors advocate for Medicaid expansion,” Ron Shinkman, August 18, 2014.

Forbes
The Best Places for Business and Careers,” Kurt Badenhausen, July 23, 2014.

Hart Research and Public Opinion Strategies
Fred Yang, The Wall Street Journal/NBC News Poll, regional breakdown provided for this report

Illinois State University College of Education
Grapevine,” Fiscal Year 2013-2014.

MIT Living Wage Calculator

New Republic
The $236,500 Hole in the American Dream,” Dean Starkman, June 30, 2014.

The New York Times
“A New Report Argues Inequality Is Causing Slower Growth. Here’s Why It Matters,” Neil Irwin, August 5, 2014. www.nytimes.com/2014/08/06/upshot/alarm-on-income-inequality-from-a-mainstream-source.html
“Is College Worth It? Clearly, New Data Say,” David Leonhardt, May 27, 2014. www.nytimes.com/2014/05/27/upshot/is-college-worth-it-clearly-new-data-say.html
“The Downward Ramp,” Thomas B. Edsall, June 10, 2014. www.nytimes.com/2014/06/11/opinion/the-downward-ramp.html
“Cutting the Poor Out of Welfare,” Thomas B. Edsall, June 17, 2014. www.nytimes.com/2014/06/18/opinion/thomas-edsall-cutting-the-poor-out-of-welfare.html
“In Climbing Income Ladder, Location Matters,” David Leonhardt, July 22, 2013. www.nytimes.com/2013/07/22/business/in-climbing-income-ladder-location-matters.html
“Thomas Piketty and His Critics,” Thomas B. Edsall, May 14, 2014. www.nytimes.com/2014/05/14/opinion/edsall-thomas-piketty-and-his-critics.html
“Who Gets to Graduate?” Paul Tough, May 15, 2014. www.nytimes.com/2014/05/18/magazine/who-gets-to-graduate.html
“Inequality Has Been Going On Forever … but That Doesn’t Mean It’s Inevitable,” David Leonhardt, May 2, 2014. www.nytimes.com/2014/05/04/magazine/inequality-has-been-going-on-forever-but-that-doesnt-mean-its-inevitable.html
“The Nation’s Economy, This Side of the Recession,” Alicia Parlapiano, Shaila Dewan, and Nelson D. Schwartz, June 14, 2014. www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/06/14/business/this-side-of-the-recession.html

NCHEMS Information Center for Higher Education Policymaking and Analysis
Student Pipeline—Transition and Completion Rates from 9th Grade to College,” 2010.

North Carolina Justice Center

“Smart Money—Investing in Student Achievement,” Cedric Johnson and Matt Ellinwood, November 2013. www.ncjustice.org/?q=education/nc-justice-center-report-smart-money-investing-student-achievement

The Pew Charitable Trusts

“Pursuing the American Dream: Economic Mobility Across Generations,” Economic Mobility Project, July 9, 2012. www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/0001/01/01/pursuing-the-american-dream

“Mobility and the Metropolis,” Economic Mobility Project, December 4, 2013. www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/0001/01/01/mobility-and-the-metropolis

“Faces of Economic Mobility Key Findings,” September 2013. www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/data-visualizations/interactives/2013/faces-of-economic-mobility/docs/faces_of_economic_mobility_key_findings.pdf

Pew Research Center

“Millennials in Adulthood,” March 7, 2014. www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/03/07/millennials-in-adulthood/

“7 things to know about polarization in America,” Carroll Doherty, June 12, 2014. www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/12/7-things-to-know-about-polarization-in-america/

“Political Polarization in the American Public, June 12, 2014. www.people-press.org/2014/06/12/political-polarization-in-the-american-public/

“A Rising Share of Young Adults Live in Their Parents’ Home,” Richard Fry, August 1, 2013. www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/08/01/a-rising-share-of-young-adults-live-in-their-parents-home/

PolicyLink

“Increasing Economic Opportunity for African Americans,” Angela Glover Blackwell, July 19, 2014. www.policylink.org/find-resources/library/jec_testimony

Richmond Times-Dispatch

“Richmond anti-poverty initiative up and running,” Michael Paul Williams, June 3, 2014. www.timesdispatch.com/news/local/columnists-blogs/michael-paul-williams/richmond-anti-poverty-initiative-up-and-running/article_ea2b578e-d47a-5583-9fce-e2ab0299ef13.html

Southern Education Foundation

“A New Majority,” October 2013. www.southerneducation.org/getattachment/0bc70ce1-d375-4ff6-8340-f9b3452ee088/A-New-Majority-Low-Income-Students-in-the-South-an.aspx

Standard & Poor’s

“How Increasing Income Inequality Is Dampening U.S. Economic Growth, And Possible Ways To Change The Tide,” August 5, 2014. www.globalcreditportal.com/ratingsdirect/renderArticle.do?articleId=1351366&SctArtId=255732&from=CM&nsl_code=LIME&sourceObjectId=8741033&sourceRevId=1&fee_ind=N&exp_date=20240804-19:41:13

The Times-Picayune

“New Orleans’ economic strategy aims to connect all residents to job opportunities,” Mitch Landrieu, September 14, 2014. www.nola.com/opinions/index.ssf/2014/09/new_orleans_economic_strategy.html

Trulia Trends

“America’s Most Unequal Metros,” Jed Kolko, March 12, 2014. www.trulia.com/trends/2014/03/americas-most-unequal-metros/

UNC Charlotte Urban Institute

“Charlotte and Raleigh top U.N. list of fastest growing large U.S. Cities,” John Chesser, August 27, 2014. ui.uncc.edu/story/charlotte-and-raleigh-are-fastest-growing-large-cities-un-projections

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

“2014 revision of the World Urbanization Prospects,” July 10, 2014. www.un.org/en/development/desa/publications/2014-revision-world-urbanization-prospects.html

U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey

www.census.gov/acs/www/

Vox

“Everything you need to know about income inequality,” Matthew Yglesias, May 7, 2014. www.vox.com/cards/income-inequality/what-is-income-inequality

The Wall Street Journal

“Poll Finds Widespread Economic Anxiety,” Patrick O’Connor, August 5, 2014. online.wsj.com/articles/wsj-nbc-poll-finds-widespread-economic-anxiety-1407277801

 

Brownsville, TX sources
Interviewees and Contributors
Ethel Cantu, Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs, The University of Texas at Brownsville
Blanca Davila, All In Student Ambassador Coordinator, United Way of Southern Cameron County
Irv Downing, Vice President for Economic Development and Community Services, The University of Texas at Brownsville
Imelda Guerrero, Intern, City of Brownsville
Merrill Hammons, Administrator for Guidance and Counseling, Brownsville Independent School District
David Merrill, Branch Manager, Wells Fargo Advisors
Reba Cardenas McNair, President, Cardenas Development Co., Inc.
Nelda Torres Najera, YouthBuild Brownsville Program Director, Community Development Corporation of Brownsville
Deborah Portillo, Commissioner, City of Brownsville
Lizzy de la Garza Putegnat, Director of Business Retention & Expansion, Brownsville Economic Development Council
Janeth Rico, All In Lead Student Ambassador, United Way of Southern Cameron County
Juan Andres Rodriguez, Program Director, Career Services, The University of Texas at Brownsville
Navile Rodriguez, Former All In Student Ambassador and Teach for America Corps Member, Frederick Douglass Elementary School. Seaford, DE
Mariana Tumlinson, Community Relations Manager, Valley Regional Medical Center
Traci Wickett, President & CEO, United Way of Southern Cameron County

All In.
All In 2013 Community Indicator Report on Human Capital
and Education: allinbrownsville.org/assets/CommunityIndicatorReport.pdf

McAllen Independent School District
2013 Labor Market Information Report: An analysis of the
emerging labor market in the Rio Grande Valley; www.mcallenisd.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/2013-Labor-Market-Information-Report.pdf

Charlotte, NC sources
Interviewees and Contributors
LaRita Barber, Senior Vice President, Community Engagement, Goodwill Industries of the Southern Piedmont
Kwain Bryant, Youth Services Manager, Goodwill Industries of the Southern Piedmont
Ronald Carter, President, Johnson C. Smith University
Astrid Chirinos, President, Latin American Chamber of Commerce of Charlotte
Ann Clark, Deputy Superintendent, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools
Michael Elder, President and CEO, Goodwill Industries of the Southern Piedmont
Chris Jackson, Executive Vice President, Workforce Services and Organizational Development, Goodwill Industries of the Southern Piedmont
Jane McIntyre, Executive Director, United Way of Central Carolinas
Jeff Michael, Director, UNC Charlotte Urban Institute
Anna Spangler-Nelson, Trustee, Knight Foundation
Susan Patterson, Program Director, Knight Foundation
Steve Partridge, President and CEO, Charlotte Works
Tony Zeiss, President, Central Piedmont Community College

Charlotte Observer
“Yes, Charlotte is a great city, but…” Taylor Batten, June 7, 2014.

Charlotte, NC: The Global Evolution of a New South City
“Developing a Typology of African American Neighborhoods in the American South: The Case of Charlotte,” Gerald L. Ingalls & Isaac Heard, Jr. in Charlotte, NC: The Global Evolution of a New South City, Eds. Heather Smith and Bill Graves. The University of Georgia Press. 2010
“Development and the Politics of School Desegregation and Resegregation,” Stephen Samuel Smith in Charlotte, NC: The Global Evolution of a New South City, Eds. Heather Smith and Bill Graves. The University of Georgia Press. 2010

Project LIFT
“Project LIFT: Year 1 Report,” Michael Norton and Kelly Piccinino. Research for Action. April 2014.
Project LIFT: www.projectliftcharlotte.org

Port St. Joe, FL sources
Interviewees and Contributors
Jim Anderson, City Manager, Port St. Joe
Kim Bodine, Executive Director, CareerSource Gulf Coast
Diana Burkett, Executive Director, Christian Community Development Fund
Loretta Costin, Director, Gulf/Franklin Campus, Gulf State Community College
Tim Croft, Editor, The Star
Jade Hatcher, Disabilities Specialist, North Florida Child Development
Sarah Hinds, Health Education Program Manager, Florida Department of Health, Gulf County
Jennifer German, Deputy Director, CareerSource Gulf Coast
Tom Gibson, Partner, Rish, Gibson, Scholz, and Groom, P.A.
Minnie Likely, Executive Director, North Port St. Joe Community Youth Initiative
Marsha Lindeman, Administrator, Gulf and Franklin Counties, Florida Department of Health
Lesia McDaniel, Government Operations Consultant II, Florida Department of Health
Sandy Martin, CEO, St. Joseph Care of Florida, Inc. and Health Services Manager, Florida Department of Health
Clementina Nickson, afterschool program coordinator, Church of God in Christ
Charlotte Pierce, City Auditor/Clerk, Port St. Joe
Kenetha Tschudi, community volunteer, Church of God in Christ
Linda Tschudi, Employment Specialist, Gulf County Schools
David Woods, Jr., Pastor, Church of God in Christ

The Associates LLC AVI Collaborative
“Bay Park: Gateway to the Bay,” April 1, 2013.

Gulf County TDC
“Gulf County Florida 2014 Official Visitor Guide,” 2014.

James H. Johnson, Jr. and Catherine Wheeler McClain
“Assessing the Competitiveness of Gulf County, Florida,” James H. Johnson, Jr. and Catherine Wheeler McClain, October 2006.

Port St. Joe’s Competitive Florida Partnership
“City of Port St. Joe Action Plan,” June 2014.

Quad R, LLC
“Gulf County 2013 Community Health Improvement Plan Report,” 2013.

Sacred Heart Hospital on the Gulf
“2013 Community Health Needs Assessment Summary,” 2013.

The Star
“Investing in the community,” Tim Croft, March 21, 2013.
“Resident urges unity for entire city,” Tim Croft, December 12, 2013.
“Taking stock of the community’s assets,” Tim Croft, May 1, 2014.

Danville, VA sources
Interviewees and Contributors
Clark Casteel, Senior Program Officer, Danville Regional Foundation
Wendi Goods Everson, Program Officer, Danville Regional Foundation
Charles Majors, Executive Chairman, American National Bank and Trust Company
Laurie Moran, President, Danville Pittsylvania County Chamber of Commerce
Bruce Scism, President, Danville Community College
Karl Stauber, President and CEO, Danville Regional Foundation
Corrie Teague, Project Manager, City of Danville, Office of Economic Development
Linwood Wright, Public and Governmental Affairs Consultant, City of Danville, Office of Economic Development

MDC
“The Only Way Out is Up: How MDC helped Danville, Va., chart a new vision for its future,” Alison Jones. www.mdcinc.org/resources/publications/only-way-out-how-mdc-helped-danville-va-chart-new-vision-its-future

Greenville, SC sources
Interviewees and Contributors
John Baker, Executive Director, Greenville Works
Kristin Bennett, Campaign Manager, United Way of Greenville County
John Concklin, Program Investment Manager, United Way of Greenville County
Sean Dogan, Pastor, Long Branch Baptist Church
Becky Godbey, Vice President of Career Development Services, Goodwill Industries of Upstate/Midlands South Carolina
Ted Hendry, President, United Way of Greenville County
Hank Hyatt, Vice President, Economic Development, Greater Greenville Chamber of Commerce
Martin Livingston, Executive Director, Greenville County Redevelopment Authority
Phyllis Martin, Vice President for Strategy & Investment, United Way of Greenville County
Tish Young McCutchen, Vice President of Organizational Planning & Public Affairs, United Way of Greenville County
Deborah McKetty, Executive Director, CommunityWorks Carolina
W. Burke Royster, Superintendent, Greenville County Schools
Minor Shaw, President, Micco, LLC
Gage Weekes, Senior Vice President, Strategic Initiatives, Hollingsworth Funds, Inc.
Nancy Whitworth, Director of Economic Development, City of Greenville
Scott Williams, Controller, United Way of Greenville County

ACT, Inc.
“Greenville Works: A Workforce Development Strategy that Lives up to Its Name,” www.act.org/workforce/case/greenville.html

The Atlantic
“Why Cities Work Even When Washington Doesn’t,” James Fallows, April 2014. www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2014/04/the-case-for-strong-mayors/358642/

Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research
cuicar.com/

CommunityWorks Carolina
communityworkscarolina.org/

Goodwill Industries of Upstate/Midlands South Carolina
www.goodwillsc.org/

Greenville Chamber
www.greenvillechamber.org/

Greenville Regional Workforce Collaborative
The Greenville Region Workforce Collaborative White Paper.

NEXT High School
nexthighschool.org/

The Post and Courier
“S.C. workers’ skills-versus-jobs gap expected to grow more severe,” Warren L. Wise, April 6, 2014. www.postandcourier.com/article/20140406/PC16/140409999/1005/sc-experts-fear-growth-of-job-gap-area-lacks-scholars-in-math-sciences

United Way of Greenville County
www.unitedwaygc.org/

Arkansas sources
Interviewees and Contributors
Gabriel Fosting, Founder and CEO, The College Initiative
John Gaudin, Argenta Wealth Management; Board Chairman, Arkansas Regional Innovation Hub
Rich Huddleston, Executive Director, Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families
Evelyn Jorgenson, President, NorthWest Arkansas Community College
Mike Leach, Director of Center for Student Success, Arkansas Association of Two-Year Colleges
Mike Malone, President and CEO, Northwest Arkansas Council
Steven Murray, Chancellor, Phillips Community College of the University of Arkansas
Karama Neal, Director, Southern Bancorp Community Partners
Mireya Reith, Co-Founder and Executive Director, The Arkansas United Community Coalition
Melissa Rivers, Executive Director, East Arkansas Planning and Development District
Warwick Sabin, Executive Director of Arkansas Regional Innovation Hub and Arkansas State House of Representatives Member
Grant Tennille, Executive Director, Arkansas Economic Development Commission
Kyla Waters, Director of WorkForce Training, Arkansas Association of Two-Year Colleges
Naccaman Williams, Director of Special Initiatives, Walton Family Foundation

Ark. Code § 6-1-602 (Lexis Nexis 2014)

Arkansas Association of Two-Year Colleges
Arkansas Career Pathways Initiative, www.arkleg.state.ar.us/assembly/2013/Meeting%20Attachments/520/I12546/Handout-CPI-Career%20Coaches.pdf

Arkansas Innovation Hub
www.arhub.org

Arkansas Works
“Arkansas Works: Update and Future Status,” November 2012.

MDC
“Center for Working Families at Community Colleges: Clearing the Financial Barriers to Student Success. Case Studies,” 2012.

The New York Times
“The Inauguration; Maya Angelou: ‘On the Pulse of Morning,’” January 21, 1993.

NorthWest Arkansas Community College
Certified Retail Analyst Program, www.nwacc.edu/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=5536e540-4659-472a-a9a7-103deaa60d78&groupId=135933

Northern Neck, VA sources
Interviewees and Contributors
Wardell Carter, Unit Director, Boys and Girls Club of the Northern Neck
Tom Coye, Pastor, St. Andrews Presbyterian Church
Elizabeth Crowther, President, Rappahannock Community College
Leslie Franklin, Regional Grants Management Associate, River Counties Community Foundation
Lindsy Gardner, Director, Lancaster Community Library
Tina Hagen, Office Manager, Boys and Girls Club of the Northern
Phillip Mumford, Executive Director/CPO, Boys and Girls Club of the Northern Neck
Margaret Nost, Affiliate Director, River Counties Community Foundation
Paul Reber, Executive Director, Stratford Hall
Cynthia Rioland, Co-Pastor, Macedonia Baptist Church
Kenneth Rioland, Jr., Pastor, Macedonia Baptist Church
Paul Sciacchitano, Managing Director, Investments, Wells Fargo Advisors
Mark Walker, Knowledge Management and Technology Officer, Jessie Ball duPont Fund

Frank Hawkins Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise
“Northern Neck, Virginia: A Competitiveness Assessment,” James H. Johnson, Jr. and Allan Parnell. wordpress.dupontfund.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/assessment-northern-neck.pdf

GOVERNING Institute
“The Political Future of a Browning America,” Mark Funkhouser, January 7, 2013. www.governing.com/gov-institute/col-political-future-browning-america-population-growth.html

The Northern Neck Planning District Commission
“Northern Neck CEDS,” April 2013. nnpdc.org/PAGES/CEDS/nnceds.htm

Richmond Times-Dispatch
“State’s oyster harvest hits highest level in 25 years,” Rex Springston, August 15, 2013. www.timesdispatch.com/business/state-s-oyster-harvest-hits-highest-level-in-years/article_0bd0a16a-04f2-11e3-8472-001a4bcf6878.html

Virginia Tourism Corporation
“Governor McAuliffe Announces Creation of Virginia Oyster Trail.” www.virginia.org/pressroom/release.asp?id=443

VISIONS
“A Community at the Crossroads,” June 2012.

Houston, TX sources
Interviewees and Contributors
Claudia Aguirre-Vasquez, Senior Vice President and Chief Program Officer, Neighborhood Centers
Amy Corron, Assistant Vice President for Community Investment, United Way of Greater Houston
Colleen Dippel, Founder and Executive Director, Families Empowered
Patricia Gail Bray, Director of Research, The Episcopal Health Foundation
George Grainger, Senior Program Officer-Education, Houston Endowment
Glenn Johnson, Professor of Political Science, Professor of Urban Planning and Environment Policy, Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies, Barbara Jordan-Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs; Texas Southern University
Stephen Klineberg, Founding Director of Kinder Institute for Urban research at Rice University
Steve Murdock, Director, Hobby Center for the Study of Texas, Rice University
Mike Temple, Director, Gulf Coast Workforce Board and Workforce Solutions
Ruth López Turley, Professor of Sociology and Director at Houston Education Research Consortium, Rice University
Carolyn Watson, Vice President for Global Philanthropy, JPMorgan Chase

All Kids Alliance: Cradle to Career
“2012/2013 Update.” www.allkidsalliance.org/Data%20%20Reports/Annual%20Reports.aspx

The Atlantic
“Houston is Unstoppable: Why Texas’ Juggernaut is America’s #1 Job Creator.” Derek Thompson, May 28, 2013. www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/05/houston-is-unstoppable-why-texas-juggernaut-is-americas-1-job-creator/275927/
“The Uneven Growth of High and Low-Wage Jobs Across America.” Richard Florida, September 27, 2013. www.citylab.com/work/2013/09/uneven-growth-high-and-low-wage-jobs-across-america/6937/

The Broad Prize for Urban Education
“Previous Winners and Finalists,” and “Charter Prize by Year,” www.broadprize.org/past_winners/map.html

Business Insider
”18 Facts That Make Houston The Best City in America.” Emmie Martin and Max Nisen, July 1, 2014. www.businessinsider.com/houston-best-city-in-america-2014-6?op=1

Joe Feagin
Free Enterprise City: 1988. Joe Feagin. Rutgers University Press.

Greater Houston Partnership
“Addressing Houston’s Middle Skills Jobs Challenge: A Plan by the Greater Houston Partnership Regional Workforce Development Task Force” April 2014. www.houston.org/upskillhouston/pdf/Middle%20skills%20Plan_All%20Pages_6-06.pdf
“Houston Rating and Rankings.” www.houston.org/business/news-rankings.html
“Houston Briefs: Talking Points.” Third Quarter 2013. www.houston.org/pdf/research/quickview/Most_Current_Talking_Points.pdf
“Opportunity Urbanism: An Emerging Paradigm for the 21st Century.” Joel Kotkin, 2007 www.houston.org/newgen/Independent_Research/Kotkin-Opportunity-Urbanism.pdf
“Opportunity Urbanism-Policy Framework.” Tory Gattis. www.houston.org/newgen/Independent_Research/Gattis-Opportunity-Urbanism-Policy-Framework.pdf
“Social, Economic and Demographic Characteristics of Metro Houston: With Projections to 2040 and 2050.” January 2014. www.houston.org/pdf/research/quickview/Population_Employment_Forecast.pdf
“2014 Houston Employment Forecast: a Publication of the Greater Houston Partnership.” December 3, 2013. www.houston.org/pdf/research/quickview/Employment-Forecast.pdf

Houston Chronicle
“Grateful After Serving Great City of Opportunity.” Bill White, January 3, 2010. www.chron.com/opinion/outlook/article/Bill-White-Grateful-after-serving-great-city-of-1697610.php

Houston Independent School District
“2012-2013 Facts and Figures”

Kinder Institute for Urban Research at Rice University
“Houston: The First Century and a Half (1836-1982).” Stephen L. Klineberg, 2012.
“The 2012 Houston Education Survey: Public Perceptions in a Critical Time.” Stephen L. Klineberg, Jie Wu, and Kiara Douds, November 2013. kinder.rice.edu/uploadedFiles/Kinder_Institute_for_Urban_Research/SHEA/SHEA%20Education%20Report.pdf
“The 33rd Kinder Institute Houston Area Survey: The Change Face of the Houston Region” Stephen L. Klineberg, 2014. issuu.com/kinderinstitute/docs/2014_houston_area_survey_report_-_k
“The Changing Face of Houston’s Black Community: The Ethnic Divides and the Distinctive Relationships of Income and Age with the Attitudes and Beliefs of African Americans” Stephen L. Klineberg, Mary Buchanan, Kiara Douds, Jie Wu: June 2014 Draft for publication in Invisible Houston Revisited.
“Review of Dr. Roland Fryer’s Apollo 20 Report-Injecting Charter School Best Practices in Traditional Public Schools: Evidence from Houston.” Ruth N. López Turley, February 2014. kinder.rice.edu/uploadedFiles/Kinder_Institute_for_Urban_Research/Programs/HERC/Apollo%2020.pdf

David McComb
Houston: The Bayou City: 1969. David McComb. University of Texas Press: Austin

Steve Murdock et. al.
Changing Texas: Implication of Addressing or Ignoring the Texas Challenge: 2014. Steve Murdock et. al. Texas A&M University Press: College Station

Neighborhood Centers Inc.
“How We’re Transforming Communities” iamforgood.org/how-we-transform-communities/

The New York Times
“Now, it’s Remember the Oil Bust!” Lisa Belkin, August 22, 1989. www.nytimes.com/1989/08/22/business/now-it-s-remember-the-oil-bust.html

Robert Bullard
Invisible Houston: The Black Experience in Boom and Bust. Robert Bullard, 1987. Texas A&M University Press: College Station

Texas Education Agency
“Texas Public Education Information Resource.” texaseducationinfo.org/

The Urban Institute
“Tackling Persistent Poverty in Distressed Urban neighborhoods: History, Principles, and Strategies for Philanthropic Investment.” Margery Austin Turner et. al., June 2014 www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/413179-Tackling-Persistent-Poverty-in-Distressed-Urban-Neighborhoods.pdf
“Building Successful Neighborhood.” Peter A. Tatian et. al., April 2012 www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412557-Building-Successful-Neighborhoods.pdf
“Expanding Access to Economic Opportunities in Fast-Growth Metropolitan Areas.” Rolf Pendall and Margery Austin Turner, May 2014. www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/413138-Expanding-Access-to-Economic-Opportunity-in-Fast-Growth-Metropolitan-Areas.pdf

The Wall Street Journal
“Success and the City” Joel Kotkin and Tory Gattis. July 14, 2014.
online.wsj.com/news/article_email/joel-kotkin-and-tory-gattis-success-and-the-city-1405379881-lMyQjAxMTA0MDEwNzExNDcyWj

Durham, NC sources
Interviewees and Contributors
Serina Aiken, student, Jordan High School
Bill Bell, Mayor, City of Durham
MaryAnn Black, Associate Vice President for Community Relations, Duke University Health System
Elaine Bushfan, Superior Court Judge, Durham County-District 14
Steven Channing, Producer and Historian, Durham: A Self-Portrait
Dave Currey, Project Director, BECOMING Durham
Ray Eurquhart, Community Activist, Southside neighborhood
Vanessa Hernandez, graduate, Hillside High School
Bill Ingram, President, Durham Technical Community College
Carlton Koonce, Internship and Mentor Coordinator, Partners for Youth Opportunity
Robert Korstad, Professor of Public Policy and History, Duke University
Daniel Kimberg, Executive Director, Student U
Katushka Olave, Pastoral Care Associate, Immaculate Conception Catholic Church
David Reese, President and CEO, East Durham Children’s Initiative
Miriam Valle-Casarrubias, Office Coordinator, Durham Congregations in Action

City of Durham
“12th Annual State of the City Address.” Mayor Bill Bell, Monday, February 3, 2014
durhamnc.gov/ich/mayor/Documents/soc_speech_020314.pdf

The Durham News
“First Eagle Connect students move in,” Jonathan M. Alexander, August 17, 2014. www.thedurhamnews.com/2014/08/17/4071857_first-eagle-connect-students-move.html

Durham Technical Community College
“Durham ConnectFunds.” www.durhamtech.edu/connectfunds/

East Durham Children’s Initiative
“Partners,” and “Overview.” edci.org/edci-zone/

The Emerging Issues Forum
“Education, Health & Business: Success Through Collaboration,” Remarks by Victor J. Dzau at The Emerging Issues Forum’s “Teachers and the Great Economic Debate” conference.

Forbes.com
“The Most and Least Educated Cities in America.” Kathryn Dill.
www.forbes.com/sites/kathryndill/2014/09/16/the-most-and-least-educated-cities-in-america/

MDC
“Made in Durham: Building an Education-to-Career System.” October 2012
www.mdcinc.org/sites/default/files/resources/Made%20in%20Durham%20PRINT%20%2011%2013%2012-FINAL_0.pdf

Enrico Moretti
The New Geography of Jobs. Enrico Moretti, 2012. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company: New York.

National Institute of Health
“Forging Hispanic communities in new destinations: A case study of Durham, NC,” Chenoa A. Flippen and Emilio A. Parrado, March 2012. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3904504/

NC Justice Center Budget & Tax Center
“Snapshot of Immigrants in North Carolina and Durham County,” September 2013. www.ncjustice.org/sites/default/files/BTC%20FACT%20SHEET%20-%20Immigrants%20are%20Vital%20Assets%20to%20NC’s%20Economy_Durham%20County.pdf

The News & Observer
“Teaming up to create a high-quality workforce for NC,” Victor J. Dzau, February 9, 2014. www.newsobserver.com/2014/02/09/3600523_teaming-up-to-create-a-high-quality.html

North Carolina Central University
“NCCU and Durham Tech Sign MOU for Triangle Region’s First Residential, Dual Enrollment Initiative.” www.nccu.edu/news/index.cfm?ID=4B3E02CA-15C5-F8D8-3AF9B16F75125ACD
“About NCCU.” www.nccu.edu/discover/index.cfm

Penn Current
“Hispanic migration in Durham, N.C.,” Greg Johnson, April 18, 2013. www.upenn.edu/pennnews/current/2013-04-18/research/hispanic-migration-durham-nc

Pew Research Hispanic Trends Project
“U.S. Hispanic Population by County, 1980-2011” www.pewhispanic.org/2013/08/29/u-s-hispanic-population-by-county-1980-2011/

U.S. Census Bureau
“Durham County, North Carolina.” quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/37/37063.html

“Building an Infrastructure of Opportunity for the Next Generation” takes a deep look at prospects and challenges for the region’s 15- to -24-year-olds. Southern communities need to create an “infrastructure of opportunity” for youth and young adults that is as seamless as the electric grid or the water system—and just as essential. That infrastructure consists of a clear and deliberate set of pathways and supports that connect youth and young adults to educational credentials and economic opportunity.

Read more of the report.